Inview of Partitioning of Bengal by Lord Curzon in 1905


This work gives details on how , why and by whom the older province of Bengal was partitioned and has transformed into what.This section gives knowledge on one of the main moments in the history of Bengal.The things that motivated for the partition of Bengal is discussed here.The administrative sections for the new province and the old provinces are lightly compared and contrasted.

Bengal was partitioned during the reign of Lord Curson(1899-1905), which became one of the greatest
moments of the history of Bengal. Bengal, at that time, was a great state which constituted of
Bihar and Orissa. So it was too large for efficient administration. So it required , proper
administration and the divisioning was to be good. So thus, Curson decided to partition it.

An area of 189,000 square miles and 78.74 million people were to be administered by the single
lieutenant governor of Bengal. Many districts were not administered as of poor communication
facilities with them. The condition of peasants were very poor and in those places the field like
trade and education were in the pits. In the sides of East Bengal, no attention was given as the
law enforcements there had to face many difficulties. Through the water masses, trade of illegal
items also existed during that age.

The problems of famine also made up the mind of government to consider the removal of administration from those areas. Even though , some arrangements were made to rearrange the administrative sections of Bengal. In the year 1836, some of the upper sections of Bengal were removed and they were effectively placed under the administration of a lieutenant governor. In the year 1854 , Assam was removed from Bengal to form a Chief-; october; july and in the year 1898 , the Lushai Hills were added to it.

In 1903 , the idea or the proposals of partitioning Bengal were first taken into the consideration. Curson's real plan was to divide Bengal on thinking of the ground of administrative effectiveness. Originally, the division was made geographically.

The government's intention was to partition Bengal for three major aspects to be carried out. First, it wanted to remove the burden of the administrative sections to administer the large Bengal and give more attention to the outlying districts. Second, it wanted to promote the jurisdiction of Assam by providing it also with an outlet to the sea. Third, the government required the union of the Uriya-speaking population under a single administration. Again there were many proposals to separate Chittagong , Dhaka and Mymensigh from Bengal and attach them to Assam. Also a proposal was there for Chota Nagpur to be detached from Bengal and incorporated with the central provinces.

The enlarged scheme received the assent of the governments of Assam and Bengal. The new province would consisting of the state of Hill Tripura, the Divisions of Chittagong, Dhaka and Rajshahi and the Malda joined with Assam. Bengal was to surrender to these large territories on the east. On the west it would have Sambalpur and small places of five Uriya-speaking states from the Central Provinces. Thus Bengal became a state of 141,580 sq. miles and a population of 53 million, of which 41.5 million were to be Hindus and 7.4 million Muslims.

The new state was to be called 'Eastern Bengal and Assam' with its capital at Dhaka headquarters. It would become an area of 106,540 sq. miles with a population of 33 million comprising of 19 million Muslims and 14 million Hindus. Its administration were to be consisting of Legislative Council, a Board of Revenue of two members, and the jurisdiction of the Calcutta High Court. The government made it clear that that the new state would have a clear western boundary and well defined linguistic, geographical, and social characteristics. Besides, the whole of the tea industry, and the portion of the jute growing area would be brought under a single administration. The government of India made up their final decision in a Resolution made on 19 July 1905 and the Partition of Bengal came to effect on 16 October 1905.


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